Septic Arthritis Treatment

What is Septic Arthritis?

Infection of joint is known as septic arthritis, it can affect any joint in body, mostly large joint like hip, knee, shoulder & elbow in descending order.

Causes of Septic Arthritis?

Septic arthritis occurs because of infection of joint. This infection can come to joint via blood circulation, trauma, infection of near bone etc. In neonates, it is taken as septicemia because in neonates septic arthritis occur because of hematogenous spread of bacteria.  Septic arthritis occur because of decrease in immunity of patient.

 Signs and Symptoms of Septic Arthritis?

In septic arthritis child can have fever, swelling, pain, redness, decrease in movement of affected joint. Inability to bear weight during walking.  If it persists for long duration then joint deformity & stiffness of joint will be the presentation from patient.

 Who’s at higher risk for Septic Arthritis?

Infants & new born, child with lower immunity, previous unhealed bony sinus near joint are at higher risk for getting septic arthritis.

 Diagnosis of Septic Arthritis?

 Diagnosis of septic arthritis is being made on the basis of history of pain, swelling, fever, inability to bear weight, decrease in joint movement and examination finding of fluid in joint, tenderness, redness, swelling. Finally we need x-ray to see increase in joint space, bone involvement. Ultrasound is needed to see the collection in joint. Final confirmation is being made by needle aspiration, gram stain and culture sensitivity etc.

 Septic Arthritis Treatment?

It is dictam that pus anywhere in body need drainage so it became imperative mostly in infants & small children to drain pus from joint. In superficial joint like knee, elbow it can be drained by needle aspiration and lavage but in deeper join like hip & shoulder we need surgery to to drain that pus. Along with surgery, child also needs rest to joint by plaster, traction, not putting weight on limb along with IV Antibiotic. Intravenous antibiotic needed from 1-2 week depends upon condition then oral antibiotic for 4-6 week.

 Septic Arthritis Complications?

Septic arthritis should be taken as emergency. It should be managed at urgent basis. In long term if not managed or delayed then they cause damage to joint. Child will have stiff joint and and even in some cases joint will not have any movement. In infant septic arthritis causes early damage to joint mostly in intra-articular bone like in hip joint.

 Septic Arthritis Prognosis?

If it is taken as emergency and managed with drainage and Iv antibiotic then most of time good outcome in long term. But in-spite of early drainage and IV antibiotic, damage proceed at very fast rate due to lack of immunity and resistant infection (non responding antibiotics). if it is not managed or some problem arise, then in long term it can cause stiffness and joint damage. Child will not be able to use joint. 

 

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Dr. Jitendra Kumar Jain
Trishla Orthopedic Clinic & Rehab center, 182C / 350A, Tagore Town, Prayagraj (Allahabad) U.P-211002, India

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