What is Tibial Hemimelia:
Tibia hemimelia is a rare congenital lower limb deficiency presenting with a wide spectrum of associated congenital anomalies, deficiency & duplication. It presents a wide range of pathology ranging from a hypoplastic tibia to a complete absence of the tibia. The fibula is always present, maybe normal, dysplastic, or duplicate. The incidence of tibial hemimelia is reported to be one per million live births.
Causes of Tibial Hemimelia:
It is a congenital anomaly, present since birth. Genetic causes are the primary factor, otherwise, in most cases causes are unknown
Symptoms of Tibial Hemimelia:
Tibial Hemimelia can present in a variety of manner like from shortening to complete absence of tibia. Symptoms depend upon severity and type of tibial hemimelia. In the smaller tibia, the foot will be inward bend but as the severity of tibial deficiency increases, the grade of foot deformity increases. Few segments of toes can be absent along with severe equinus deformity of the ankle, fibula will be protruding beyond knee and ankle joint Child will not be able to bear weight on the affected limb, etc.
How Tibial Hemimelia can be diagnosed:
Tibial Hemimelia can be easily diagnosed by just looking at leg deformity at the time of birth but confirmation requires an X-ray of the leg.
Classification of Tibial Hemimelia:
Many classifications of Tibial Hemimelia has been done but Paley classification is most use full classification as per treatment protocol is concerned.
Tests needed for Tibial Hemimelia:
Sometimes it is also necessary to check another associated congenital anomaly so an X-ray of the whole extremity is needed. Some time MRI is needed to see an un-ossified tibial segment.
Frequently Asked Questions
What are the causes of Tibial Hemimelia?
Tibial Hemimelia is a genetic abnormality. In most cases, the causes of this condition are not known also.
Which is longer tibia or fibula in tibial hemimelia?
Tibia is shorter or absent in tibial hemimelia. Tibia is weight bearing bone so surgery is must to maintain length of tibia.
What are the tests needed for Tibial Hemimelia?
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Dr. Jitendra Kumar Jain
Trishla Orthopedic Clinic & Rehab center, 182C / 350A, Tagore Town, Prayagraj (Allahabad) U.P-211002, India