About Limb Deformity:
Limb deformity means, mal-alignment of extremity. Limb deformity can occurs in upper as well in lower limb. Deformity of limb can occur in direction of joint movement/ opposite direction/ oblique plane/ rotational profile.
Causes of Limb Deformity:
Limb deformity can be due to congenital causes or acquired. Congenital causes are like CTEV, congenital limb deficiency including fibular hemimelia, tibial hemimelia, proximal femoral focal deficiency, CDH etc. Acquired causes are trauma, infection, growth abnormality, vitamin D deficiency etc.
Signs and Symptoms of Limb Deformity:
Sign and symptoms are depends upon site & severity of deformity, deformity of lower limb can cause problem in walking, awkward gait pattern, pain, problem, inability to perform activities, limb shortening 7 even inability to take weight on limb during walking joint
Different Types of Limb Deformities:
Types of limb deformity is depend upon site of deformity. In foot varus, valgus, planovalus, equinus, calcaneous deformity is common one. In leg & knee bowing, genu valgus, genu varus, hyperxtension of knee, flexion deformity etc. At hip, flexion deformity, femoral bowing, femoral torsion hip dysplasia etc. In upper limb it can present in variety of manner like radial club hand, flexion deformity, wrist extension contracture, forearm rotation deformity, elbow flexion/ extension deformity. Etc. In most of the limb deformity bone deformity is can be associated with problem in joint, muscle & shortening etc.
How Limb Deformity Can be Prevented:
Congenital limb deformity cannot be prevented but acquired one can be prevented up-to some extent. In post traumatic cases time intervention can prevent future development of deformity except in some physical injury etc
Treatment for Limb Deformity:
Treatment of limb deformity is based on many factors including age of child, site of deformity, type and cause of deformity. Deformity due to muscle problem can be managed by tendon / myofascial lengthening but bone & joint deformity need bony osteotomy. Deformity near joint in child can be managed by growth modulation in which physical plate growth can be modulated by epiphysiodesis by the application of eight plate/ screw. In adult correction can be done by bone osteotomy (cutting of bone and correcting the deformity) and fixation with plate/ nail or fixater. Gradual correction of deformity can also be done by the use of ilizarov. Ilizarov also helps in regaining length along with deformity correction.
Frequently Asked Questions
What are the causes of Limb Deformity?
A major cause of limb deformity is Growth plate injuries & Vit D deficiency.
What are the treatment options for Limb Deformity?
Sometimes no treatment is required, but when needed; treatment may include:
What happens when Limb Deformity is left untreated?
It may result in musculoskeletal problems such as arthritis or back pain and potentially prevent patients from engaging in activities they enjoy.
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Dr. Jitendra Kumar Jain
Trishla Orthopedic Clinic & Rehab center, 182C / 350A, Tagore Town, Prayagraj (Allahabad) U.P-211002, India